We describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Black Lion Tamarin, an endangered primate species endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. We assembled the Leontopithecus chrysopygus mitogenome, through analysis of 523M base pairs (bp) of short reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina Platform, and investigated the presence of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes and heteroplasmic sites. Additionally, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using all complete mitogenomes available for primates until June 2017. The single circular mitogenome of BLT showed organization and arrangement that are typical for other vertebrate species, with a total of 16618 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). Our full phylogenetic tree is based on the most comprehensive mitogenomic dataset for Callitrichidae species to date, adding new data for the Leontopithecus genus, and discussing previous studies performed on primates. Moreover, the mitochondrial genome reported here consists of a robust mitogenome with 3000X coverage, which certainly will be useful for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Callitrichidae and higher taxa.