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The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes

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Fernando Mendez, David Poznik, and Carlos Bustamante
American Journal of Human Genetics

"A central goal of human population genetics and paleoanthropology is to elucidate the relationships among ancient populations. Before the emergence of anatomically modern humans in the Middle Pleistocene ∼200 thousand years ago (kya), archaic humans lived across Africa, Europe, and Asia in highly differentiated populations. Modern human populations that expanded out of Africa in the Upper Pleistocene received a modest genetic contribution from at least two archaic hominin groups, the Neandertals and Denisovans. Especially in light of hypothesized genetic incompatibilities between Neandertals and modern humans, it is important to characterize differentiation between their ancestral populations and to investigate potential barriers to gene flow."